《公共财政学》教学大纲

北京大学国家发展研究院研究生课程

2016年春季学期

 

课程介绍:

本课程为研究生专业课,要求选课同学具有高级计量经济学背景。本课程介绍公共财政学的基本理论和分析工具,并以实证分析为基础,重点讨论税收和政府支出的微观效果、财政联邦主义理论及其在中国的应用、以及中国地方政府行为。

 

考核方式

15%-出勤与课堂参与

25%-文献报告

25%-审稿报告或论文复制

35%-研究计划

 

课程内容及阅读材料:

1. Taxation

1.1 Tax and labor supply

Macurdy, Thomas (1992) “Work Disincentive Effects of Taxes: A Reexamination of Some Evidence,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 243-249.

Eissa, Nada (1995) “Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Women: The Tax Reform Act of 1986 as a Natural Experiment” NBER Working Paper No. 5023.

Eissa, Nada (1996) “Labor Supply and the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981.” In Empirical Foundations of Household Taxation, Chapter 1, M. Feldstein and J. Poterba, eds. University of Chicago Press. (And Comment by James J. Heckman)

 

1.2 Tax and taxable income

Feldstein, Martin (1995) “The Effect of Marginal Tax Rates on Taxable Income: A Panel Study of the 1986 Tax Reform Act.” Journal of Political Economy, 103(3), 551-72.

Feldstein, Martin (1999) “Tax Avoidance and the Deadweight Loss of the Income Tax.” Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(4), 674-80.

Goolsbee, Austan (2000) “What Happens When You Tax the Rich? Evidence from Executive Compensation.” Journal of Political Economy, 108(2), 352-378.

Gruber, J., E. Saez, (2002). “The elasticity of taxable income: evidence and implications.” Journal of Public Economics, 84, 1-32.

 

1.3 Tax avoidance and tax evasion

Marion, J. and E. Muehlegger (2008) “Measuring Illegal Activity and the Effects of Regulatory Innovation: Tax Evasion and the Dyeing of Untaxed Diesel.” Journal of Political Economy, 116(4), 633-666.

Desai, M., Dyck A. and Zingales, L. (2007) “Theft and Taxes.” Journal of Financial Economics, 84(3), 591-623.

Fisman, Raymond and Shang-Jin Wei (2008) “Tax Rates and Tax Evasion: Evidence from “Missing Imports” in China”, Journal of Political Economy.

Cai, Hongbin and Qiao Liu (2009) “Competition and corporate tax avoidance: evidence from Chinese industrial firms.” Economic Journal, 119, 764-795.

La Porta, R. and A. Shleifer (2008) “The Unofficial Economy and Economic Development.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity.

 

1.4 Fiscal revenue and state capacity

Johnson, Noel and Mark Koyama (2014) “Tax farming and the origins of state capacity in England and France.” Explorations in Economic History, 51, 1-20

Lockwood, Benjamin and Francesco Porcelli (2013) “Incentive Schemes for Local Government: Theory and Evidence from Comprehensive Performance Assessment in England.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 5(3), 254-286.

Acemoglu, Daron, Camilo Garcia-Jimeno, James Robinson (2015) “State Capacity and Economic Development: A Network Approach.” American Economic Review.

Landry, Pierre and Xiaobo Lv (2014) “Show me the Money: Inter-Jurisdiction Political Competition and Fiscal Extraction in China.” American Political Science Review

 

1.5 Empirical research on China

Bai, Chong-en and Binzhen Wu (2011) “Tax Reduction and Household Consumption and Investment Decisions in Rural Areas.” (农业税)

Chen, Shuo and Jin Wang (2013) “Rural Tax Reform: Agricultural Productivity and Local Public Finance.” (农业税)

Wu, Binzhen and Xin Wang (2011) “Can Raising Deductions of Individual Income Tax Stimulate Consumption.” (个人所得税)

Chen, Yuyu, Zongyan He, and Lei Zhang (2011) “The Effect of Investment Tax Incentives:  Evidence from China's Value-Added Tax Reform.” (增值税)

Cai, Jing, Ann Harrison (2015) “Industrial Policy in China: Some Unintended Consequences?” (增值税)

Liu, Qing, Yi Lu (2015) “Firm Investment and Exporting: Evidence from China’s Value-Added Tax Reform” Journal of International Economics (增值税)

Chandra, Piyush and Cheryl Long (2013) “VAT rebates and export performance in China: Firm-level evidence.” Journal of Public Economics, 102 (出口退税)

Gourdon, Julien, Laura Hering, Stephanie Monjon, Sandra Poncet (2015) “Export management and incomplete VAT rebates to exporters: the case of China.” (出口退税)

Li, Zhigang (2005) “Measuring the Impact of Profit Taxes on the Productivity of State-Owned Enterprises Using Differential Timing of a Chinese Tax Reform.”(企业所得税)

Fuest, Clemens and Li Liu (2015) “Does Ownership Affect the Impact of Taxes on Firm Behavior? Evidence from China.” (企业所得税)

Bai, Chong-en, Qi Li, Min Ouyang (2014) “Property taxes and home prices: A tale of two cities.” Journal of Econometrics (房产税)

 

2. Government expenditures

2.1 Social security

Feldstein, Martin (1985) “The Optimal Level of Social Security Benefits.” Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Feldstein, Martin (1974) “Social Security, Induced Retirement, and Aggregate Capital Accumulation.” Journal of Political Economy.

Finkelstein, Amy and James Poterba (2004) “Adverse Selection in Insurance Markets: Policyholder Evidence from the U.K. Annuity Market.” Journal of Political Economy.

Gruber, Jon and David Wise (1997) “Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World.” NBER Working Paper 6134.

Krueger, Alan and Jorn-Steffen Pischke (1992) “The Effect of Social Security on Labor Supply: A Cohort Analysis of the Notch Generation.” Journal of Labor Economics.

 

2.2 Empirical research on China (选讲)

Feldstein, Martin (1999) “Social Security Reform in China.” China Economic Review, 10.

World Bank (2008) Public Finance in China: Reform and Growth for a Harmonious Society. Part VI.

Feng, Jin, Lixin He and Hiroshi Sato (2011) “Public Pension and Household Saving: Evidence from China.” Journal of Comparative Economics.

Li, Zhigang (2011) “Estimating the Incidences of the Recent Pension Reform in China:  Evidence from 100,000 Manufacturers.” Contemporary Economic Policy.

Bai, Chong-en and Wu, Binzhen (2012) “Chinese Social Insurance and Household Consumption.” Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2019786 

Eggleston, K., A. Sun, and Z. Zhan (2015) “The Impact of Rural Pensions in China on Migration and Off-farm Employment of Adult Children and Extended Households' Living Arrangements.” Manuscript, Stanford University.

赵静、毛捷、张磊“社会保险缴费率、参保概率与缴费水平——对职工和企业逃避费行为的经验研究”,《经济学季刊》2015年第15卷第1

 

2.3 Other public insurances (选讲)

Meyer, Bruce (1990) “Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Spells,” Econometrica, 58, 757-782.

Chetty, Raj (2008) “Moral Hazard versus Liquidity and Optimal Unemployment Insurance,” Journal of Political Economy, 116, 173-234.

Bound, John (1989) “The Health and Earnings of Rejected Disability Insurance Applicants,” American Economic Review, 79, 482-503.

Gruber, Jon (2000) “Disability Insurance Benefits and Labor Supply,” Journal of Political Economy, 108, 1162-1183.

Gruber, Jon and Jim Poterba (1994) “Tax Incentives and the Decision to Purchase Health Insurance: Evidence from the Self-Employed,” Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Cutler, David and Jon Gruber (1996) “Does Public Insurance Crowd Out Private Insurance?” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111, 391-430.

 

2.4 Public goods, education, and program evaluation (选讲)

Andreoni, James (1993) “An Experimental Test of the Public Goods Crowding Out Hypothesis.” American Economic Review.

Chay, Kenneth and Michael Greenstone (2003) “The Impact of Air Pollution on Infant Mortality: Evidence from Geographic Variation in Pollution Shocks Induced by a Recession.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 1121-1167.

Card, David and Alan Krueger (1992) “Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States.” Journal of Political Economy.

Duflo, Esther (2001) “Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment.” American Economic Review.

Hoxby, Caroline (1996) “How Teachers’ Unions Affect Education Production.” Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Banerjee, Abhijit and Esther Duflo (2011) Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty, Public Affairs.

 

3. Inter-governmental fiscal relationship

3.1 Theory of fiscal federalism

Tiebout, Charles (1956) “A Pure Theory of Local Public Expenditures.” Journal of Political Economy, 416-424.

Weingast, Barry (1995) “The Economic Role of Political Institutions: Market-Preserving Federalism and Economic Development.” Journal of Law and Economic Organization.

Besley, Tim and Stephen Coate (2003) “Centralized versus Decentralized Provision of Local Public Goods: A Political Economy Analysis.” Journal of Public Economics, 87.

Oates, Wallace (2005) “Toward a Second-Generation Theory of Fiscal Federalism.” International Tax and Public Finance, 12, 349–373

Enikolopov, Ruben and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya (2007) “Decentralization and political institutions.” Journal of Public Economics, 91(11-12).

Libman, Alexander (2010) “Constitutions, Regulations, and Taxes: Contradictions of Different Aspects of Decentralization.” Journal of Comparative Economics, 395-418.

Gadenne, Lucie and Monica Singhal (2014) “Decentralization in Developing Economies.” Annual Review of Economics, 6, 581-604.

 

3.2. Decentralization and economic growth in China

Montinola, Gabriella, Yingyi Qian, and Barry Weingast (1995) “Federalism, Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic Success in China.” World Politics.

Qian, Yingyi and Barry Weingast. (1997) “Federalism as a Commitment to Preserving Market Incentives.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11, 83–92.

Qian, Yingyi and Gerald Roland. (1998) “Federalism and the Soft Budget Constraint.” American Economic Review, 88, 1143–1162.

Jin, Hehui, Yingyi Qian and Barry Weingast (2005) “Regional Decentralization and Fiscal Incentives: Federalism, Chinese Style.” Journal of Public Economics, 89(9-10).

Cai, Hongbin and Daniel Treisman (2006) “Did Government Decentralization Cause China’s Economic Miracle.” World Politics, 58:505-535

Cai, Hongbin, and Daniel Treisman (2005) “Does competition for capital discipline governments? Decentralization, globalization and public policy?” American Economic Review 95(3), 817-830

郑永年,《中国的“行为联邦制”》东方出版社,2013

谢贞发、张玮,“中国财政分权与经济增长:一个荟萃回归分析”,《经济学季刊》2015年,14卷第2

 

3.3 Intergovernmental transfers

Brollo, Fernanda, Tommaso Nannicini, Roberto Perotti, Guido Tabellini (2013) “The Political Resource Curse.” American Economic Review.

Bracco, Emanuele, Ben Lockwood, Francesco Porcelli, Michela Redoano (2015) “Intergovernmental grants as signals and the alignment effect: Theory and evidence.” Journal of Public Economics.

Corbi, Raphael, Elias Papaioannou, Paolo Surico (2014) “Federal Transfer Multipliers: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Brazil.” NBER working paper No. 20751.

Tsui, Kai-yuen (2005) “Local Tax System, Intergovernmental Transfers and China’s Local Fiscal Disparities.” Journal of Comparative Economics, 33.

Guo, Qingwang, Chang Liu, Guangrong Ma, 2015. “How Large is the Local Fiscal Multiplier? Evidence from Chinese Counties.” Journal of Comparative Economics.

范子英、张军,“粘纸效应:对地方政府规模膨胀的一种解释”,《中国工业经济》2010年第12

尹恒、朱虹,“县级财政生产性支出偏向研究”,《中国社会科学》2011年第1期,88-101

 

3.4 Sub-provincial public finance (选讲)

Zhang, Xiaobo, Shenggen Fan, Linxiu Zhang and Jikun Huang (2004) “Local Governance and Public Goods Provision in Rural China.” Journal of Public Economics.

Zhang, Linxiu, Haomiao Liu, Scott Rozelle, Loren Brandt (2006) “Fiscal Reform and Role of the Township in China’s Rural Development.”

才国伟、黄亮雄,“政府层级改革的影响因素及其经济绩效研究”,《管理世界》2010年第8

才国伟、张学志、邓卫广,“省直管县改革会损害地级市的利益吗?”《经济研究》2011年第7

Liu, Yongzheng and James Alm (2014) “Fiscal Reform, Land Expansion, and Urban Growth in China.”

Yu, Bingxin, Kevin Chen, Yumei Zhang, Haisen Zhang (2014) “Evolving Public Expenditure in Chinese Agriculture: Definition, Pattern, Composition, and Mechanism.” IFPRI Discussion Paper 01407.

周黎安、陈祎,县级财政负担与地方公共服务:农村税费改革的影响“,《经济学季刊》201514卷第2

周黎安、吴敏,“省以下多级政府间的税收分成:特征事实与解释”《金融研究》2015年第10

Li, Pei, Yi Lu and Jin Wang (2016) “Does Flattening Government Improve Economic Performance?”

 

3.5 Interaction between fiscal and political incentives

Blanchard, Olivier and Andrei Shleifer (2001) “Federalism with and without Political Centralization: China Versus Russia.” IMF Staff Paper, 48, special issue: 171-179.

Xu, Chenggang (2011) “The Fundamental Institutions of China’s Reforms and Development.” Journal of Economic Literature, 49(4), 1076-1151.

Persson, Petra and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya (2015). The Limits of Career Concerns in Federalism: Evidence from China, Journal of the European Economic Association.

Landry, Pierre and Xiaobo Lv (2014) “Does Performance Matter? Evaluating the Institution of Political Selection along the Chinese Administrative Ladder” Manuscript

杨其静、郑楠“地方领导晋升竞争是标尺赛、锦标赛还是资格赛”,《管理世界》2013年第12

 

3.6 Transition of local government incentives

Wong, Christine and Richard Bird (2008) “China's Fiscal System: A Work in Progress.” In China’s Great Economic Transformation, Cambridge University Press.

Gordon, Roger and Wei Li (2012) “Provincial and Local Government in China: Fiscal Institutions and Government Behavior.” NBER Working Paper 16694. Also in Capitalizing China, University Of Chicago Press.

Han, Li and James Kung (2015) “Fiscal Incentives and Policy Choices of Local Governments: Evidence from China.” Journal of Development Economics 116, 89-104.

Liu, Yu (2015) “Discretionary Charges as Firm Output Distortions: Evidence from China.”

陶然、陆曦、苏福兵、汪晖,“地区竞争格局演变下的中国转轨:财政激励和发展模式反思—对改革30年高增长的政治经济学再考察和来自土地财政视角的证据”,《经济研究》2009年第7

 

3.7 Land and local government finance

Tao, Ran, Fubing Su, Mingxing Liu and Guangzhong Cao (2010) “Land Leasing and Local Public Finance in Chinas Regional Development: Evidence from Prefecture-level Cities.” Urban Studies, 47(10) 2217-2236

Deng, Yongheng, Randall Morck, Jing Wu, and Bernard Yeung (2011) “Monetary and Fiscal Stimuli, Ownership Structure, and China's Housing Market” NBER Working Paper No. 16871.

Chen, Ting and James Kai-sing Kung (2013) “Do Land Revenue Windfalls Create A Political Resource Curse? Evidence from China” Manuscript, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Wu, Jing, Joseph Gyourko, and Yongheng Deng (2015) “Real estate collateral value and investment: The case of China” Journal of Urban Economics, 86, 43-53.

Wu, Guiying, Qu Feng and Pei Li (2014) “Does Local Governments’ Budget Deficit Push Up Housing Prices in China?” Economic Growth Center Report No 2014/09, Nanyang Technological University

World Bank (2014) “Financing Urbanization.” Supporting Report No. Six for Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization, 2014.

 

3.8 Local government competition and distortion

Landry, Pierre and Xiaobo Lv (2014) “Show me the Money: Inter-Jurisdiction Political Competition and Fiscal Extraction in China” American Political Science Review

Jia, Ruixue (2012) “Pollution for Promotion.” Manuscript.

Wu, Jing, Yongheng Deng, Jun Huang, Randall Morck, and Bernard Yeung (2013) “Incentives and Outcome: China’s Environmental Policy.” NBER working paper No. 18754

Chen, Yuyu, Ginger Zhe Jin, Naresh Kumar, and Guang Shi (2012) “Gaming in air pollution data? Lessons from China.” The BE Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 12(3).

Ghanem, Dalia and Junjie Zhang (2015) “Effortless Perfection: Do Chinese Cities Manipulate Blue Skies?” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management

Van der Kamp, Denise, Peter Lorentzen, and Daniel Mattingly (2015) “Racing to the Bottom or to the Top? Decentralization and Governance Reform in China”

冯兴元,《地方政府竞争》,译林出版社,2010